(Note: I published this piece first under the heading “Seven rules the Teaching Excellence Framework should follow” via the Guardian’s Higher Education Network on 07.07.15…)
The proposed TEF (Teaching Excellence Framework) is often characterised as a “REF (Research Excellence Framework) for teaching”. It’s a description that reminds us how much less attention university teaching has received than its showier sibling, university research. But to what extent is it a useful, or even meaningful, comparison? Can measurements of research quality be mapped straightforwardly on to teaching? Has the REF proved so successful at capturing research excellence that it’s now the gold standard for evaluating all university activity? Does HE teaching even need to be REF’d?
Such questions defy simple answers. But if the TEF is the new kid on the block, perhaps there are ways in which it could learn from the REF’s triumphs and mistakes? Below are seven principles that haven’t always been synonymous with the sector’s research audits, but which might help the TEF off to a good start:
1. Be ungameable
Universities, like schools before them, have grown adept at gaming the best possible results from what’s available. The danger is that the game itself becomes the metric, with ‘winning’ institutions not necessarily those offering their students the best possible teaching, but those able to manipulate data, craft narratives and spin results in the shrewdest way. We can’t claim the TEF is for our students’ benefit if the final outcomes comprise an intricate series of metrics, league tables and seemingly contradictory information based on dubious formulae, such as ‘Teaching Power’ or ‘Teaching Intensity’. Of course, no auditing framework can ever be completely ungameable, but the TEF would benefit from a set of guidelines that keep the playing field level and the sector honest.
2. Be Collegial
Good teaching rarely occurs in isolation. Within good university departments, colleagues draw on one another’s strengths and compensate for one another’s weaknesses. Will the TEF place individual lecturers in competition, divide disciplines and create new hierarchies? Or will it facilitate constructive conversations, developmental feedback and candid evaluation?
3. Be long-term
Just as it’s difficult to measure the enduring quality of a research paper for serval years, sometimes decades, after its publication, so too can the value of good teaching not be immediately obvious. University degrees are three or more years in duration to give students the time and space to ruminate, reflect and ripen. Confident, socially-aware graduates are not the product of one bell-and-whistle-filled session (when the peer assessors happens to be around); good lecturers play the long game with their students.
4. Be cheap
The sector can ill afford to be spending millions more pounds measuring itself in increasingly incestuous ways. The TEF should be inexpensive to administer, both in terms of direct costs and the opportunity costs of taking lecturers away from their students.
5. Be inclusive
The expense and agony of deciding who gets entered can be avoided by making inclusion criteria as broad as possible. A TEF score should reflect the teaching strength of a whole discipline; it should not be the product of arbitrary, localised inclusion mechanisms. Some pedagogically-challenged staff would no doubt prefer to hide behind a research grant or admin role, but assigning values to one or two superstar lecturers in a department is of little value. Shouldn’t everyone involved in teaching, from GTAs to departmental heads, be eligible?
6. Be modest
Trying to distinguish between teaching that is “world-leading” and that which is merely “internationally excellent” is unlikely prove fruitful, especially if we’re not asking the opinion of anyone from outside the UK system to benchmark our judgements. Criteria should measure what matters, not just what lends itself to getting measured. The language of the TEF should be realistic and restrained, not lavish and conceited (“innovative, outcome-oriented delivery of outstanding learner experience” should be avoided at all cost!). What students want, broadly speaking, are enthusiastic lecturers who want them to flourish and make time for them accordingly.
7. Be open-minded
Might a TEF reward a safe, conservative approach to teaching over bolder, risk-taking methods? Might lecturers strive for the equivalent of four 3* journal articles rather than gambling on a major, paradigm-shifting pedagogies? Teaching thrives on experimentation, inventiveness and fresh thinking; if the framework encourages boxes to be ticked and learning outcomes to be dryly evidenced, the sector misses an opportunity to learn from its more visionary communicators. Universities are the place for young people to learn independent thinking skills, to become crack problem-solvers and to begin viewing the world through an informed, critical perspective.
Our teaching must reflect that ambition. Universities Minister Jo Johnson, when introducing the TEF last week, quoted one of his predecessors, David Willetts, as saying that “teaching has been by far the weakest aspect of English higher education”. It’s a baseless claim, likely to further disaffect a sector with research long acknowledged to punch well above its weight and academic staff long pressured to excel at everything, always. But with the English HE system among the most expensive in the world, our students have every right to ask why university teaching has lagged behind university research, often relying more on the good will of committed staff rather than secure institutional scaffolding.
Identifying what good research looks and feels like, and then attributing a numeric value to it, has been a challenge for the sector. Teaching will pose no fewer problems. But perhaps by thinking carefully about the principles that we want to underpin a new framework, and learning from those upon which other frameworks sit, we increase the chances of coming up with something that’s genuinely helpful both for ourselves and for our students.